Best format for sharing memory stick between mac and linux? Is there a way to use an encrypted memory stick on both OSs? I tried to format my memory stick in EXT4 in Ubuntu The main problem was that when I formatted the stick in mac and tried to open it in linux, the permission was read only, so I could not add files to the stick. I tried to change file permissions using Code:. Adv Reply. November 20th, 2. Re: Best format for sharing memory stick between mac and linux? The best way to go is exFAT.
Then after that, FAT November 20th, 3. It also does not support file permission, etc. So I'd call that absolute last resort. Ubuntu reads that just fine, as you've seen. But it does have trouble with the journalling, but will both read and write just fine with the journalling turned off on your USB stick. You have all the software that comes free of cost. And also can do both a personal and business task effectively. I hope you like this article on Linux vs Mac OS comparison.
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macos - Filesystem compatible with GNU/Linux and Mac - Super User
This sharing and caring will boost our morale to write more article for the audiences. Thank you for your valuable time spent here. Better give 2 or 3 good reasons than whatever bad ones. Most reviews are done by people with much knowledge of computers. Actually, Windows is the best. But, an issue arises due to its license fee. Then Linux comes as a solution. But look for an article in the government of Germany that actually, migrating from Windows to Linux takes more money, more costly. Now they are going to go back to windows again.
It is all just about politics. I love the windows. I use linux also. I have no money to buy a mac.
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I think Quartz is much better than X I think that too many distros are stuck in X11 and do not understand Wayland. The major tools are in all platforms, but support, and more importantly, Stack Overflow and tooling documentation context is likely in OSX. No problem if you have that many cores. The compelling reason why you should be considering developing on Linux right now is your compute just quadrupled or more for a fraction of the price. This really allows you to iterate on code much faster since you can less on an external integration.
What do u mean with GUI? I think it realy depends on the usage of it. For example for programming i prefer i3wm because its very fast. This article contains what appears to be very useful information. However, it would be much better if it were edited for grammar and syntax. I found some explanations confusing and even contradictory. Linux can most available F. Therefore, macOS has more software available for it than Linux does.
Mac has all the games??! You surely jest. Linux has more options than Mac if using Steam. Window always tops for gaming and sadly Mac is far inferior for gaming. I think this is more a common misconception than a truth. All the major media software is also available on windows. In VFX and high end 3d graphics we use a lot of Linux instead. Section 9 is basically wrong. The default login on a mac, like Linux, is not an administrator account and does not give write access to system files.
Like Linux, if a user is in the sudoers list then they can use sudo to gain elevated privileges whereby they can install, edit and erase system files. The basic security and vulnerability of the mac OS and the various Linux distros are similar. All computing systems providing internet access are vulnerable to phishing and no operating system is invulnerable to user carelessness. Your greatest protection is to erase, unread, emails you do not expect or recognize.
Computers and software are tools. A good mechanic or carpenter always chooses the best tool for the job at hand. My brother-in-law does 3D virtualizations and hi-end graphics for TV…definitely uses a Mac for his business. At the other end of the spectrum my needs are email, document creation, web-based learning management systems…I go with LInux and have for years for my main desktop and laptop. My using preference is definitely Linux…lighter, faster, more secure, and does everything I need to do at the low cost of free.
Good article. The Mac is being made into a desktop version of iOS. I have a mac mini running As time has past, i have been using Linux more and more. The main thing stopping me using a Linux machine as my main computer is the very poor HDMI output support. On linux it either does not work, crashes, or forgets the settings when I reboot, little things like this can be very annoying with Linux!
Linux vs Mac OS: Task Automation As Linux provides more administrative and root level access than Mac OS, thus it remains ahead of doing task automation through command line interface than that of Mac system. If you are introducing Task Automation as the subheading…wherein the body of that section is anything related to automation? Nowhere to be found. But it does bring up another problem:. Then introduce proof. Is it an opinion? Then elaborate. In either case, you failed your readers. Many of us definitely use or have used Linux on the desktop, but macOS provides much of the same functionality which you can augment via homebrew or docker without dealing with incompatibilities introduced with new libraries.
A tape file system is a file system and tape format designed to store files on tape in a self-describing form [ clarification needed ]. Magnetic tapes are sequential storage media with significantly longer random data access times than disks, posing challenges to the creation and efficient management of a general-purpose file system. In a disk file system there is typically a master file directory, and a map of used and free data regions. Random access to data regions is measured in milliseconds so this system works well for disks.
Tape requires linear motion to wind and unwind potentially very long reels of media. Consequently, a master file directory and usage map can be extremely slow and inefficient with tape. Writing typically involves reading the block usage map to find free blocks for writing, updating the usage map and directory to add the data, and then advancing the tape to write the data in the correct spot.
Each additional file write requires updating the map and directory and writing the data, which may take several seconds to occur for each file. Tape file systems instead typically allow for the file directory to be spread across the tape intermixed with the data, referred to as streaming , so that time-consuming and repeated tape motions are not required to write new data. However, a side effect of this design is that reading the file directory of a tape usually requires scanning the entire tape to read all the scattered directory entries.
Most data archiving software that works with tape storage will store a local copy of the tape catalog on a disk file system, so that adding files to a tape can be done quickly without having to rescan the tape media. The local tape catalog copy is usually discarded if not used for a specified period of time, at which point the tape must be re-scanned if it is to be used in the future.
The Linear Tape File System uses a separate partition on the tape to record the index meta-data, thereby avoiding the problems associated with scattering directory entries across the entire tape. Writing data to a tape, erasing, or formatting a tape is often a significantly time-consuming process and can take several hours on large tapes. This is due to the inherently destructive nature of overwriting data on sequential media. Because of the time it can take to format a tape, typically tapes are pre-formatted so that the tape user does not need to spend time preparing each new tape for use.
All that is usually necessary is to write an identifying media label to the tape before use, and even this can be automatically written by software when a new tape is used for the first time. Another concept for file management is the idea of a database-based file system. Instead of, or in addition to, hierarchical structured management, files are identified by their characteristics, like type of file, topic, author, or similar rich metadata.
Around to Frank G. Soltis and his team at IBM Rochester have successfully designed and applied technologies like the database file system where others like Microsoft later failed to accomplish. Some other projects that aren't "pure" database file systems but that use some aspects of a database file system:. Some programs need to either make multiple file system changes, or, if one or more of the changes fail for any reason, make none of the changes.
If some of the writing fails and the software is left partially installed or updated, the software may be broken or unusable. An incomplete update of a key system utility, such as the command shell , may leave the entire system in an unusable state. Transaction processing introduces the atomicity guarantee, ensuring that operations inside of a transaction are either all committed or the transaction can be aborted and the system discards all of its partial results.
This means that if there is a crash or power failure, after recovery, the stored state will be consistent. Either the software will be completely installed or the failed installation will be completely rolled back, but an unusable partial install will not be left on the system. Transactions also provide the isolation guarantee [ clarification needed ] , meaning that operations within a transaction are hidden from other threads on the system until the transaction commits, and that interfering operations on the system will be properly serialized with the transaction.
Ensuring consistency across multiple file system operations is difficult, if not impossible, without file system transactions. File locking can be used as a concurrency control mechanism for individual files, but it typically does not protect the directory structure or file metadata. File locking also cannot automatically roll back a failed operation, such as a software upgrade; this requires atomicity.
Journaling file systems is one technique used to introduce transaction-level consistency to file system structures. Journal transactions are not exposed to programs as part of the OS API; they are only used internally to ensure consistency at the granularity of a single system call.
Data backup systems typically do not provide support for direct backup of data stored in a transactional manner, which makes the recovery of reliable and consistent data sets difficult. Most backup software simply notes what files have changed since a certain time, regardless of the transactional state shared across multiple files in the overall dataset.
Re: Best format for sharing memory stick between mac and linux?
As a workaround, some database systems simply produce an archived state file containing all data up to that point, and the backup software only backs that up and does not interact directly with the active transactional databases at all. Recovery requires separate recreation of the database from the state file after the file has been restored by the backup software.
A network file system is a file system that acts as a client for a remote file access protocol, providing access to files on a server. Programs using local interfaces can transparently create, manage and access hierarchical directories and files in remote network-connected computers. A shared disk file system is one in which a number of machines usually servers all have access to the same external disk subsystem usually a SAN.
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The file system arbitrates access to that subsystem, preventing write collisions. A special file system presents non-file elements of an operating system as files so they can be acted on using file system APIs. This is most commonly done in Unix-like operating systems, but devices are given file names in some non-Unix-like operating systems as well.
Examples in Unix-like systems include devfs and, in Linux 2. In non-Unix-like systems, such as TOPS and other operating systems influenced by it, where the full filename or pathname of a file can include a device prefix, devices other than those containing file systems are referred to by a device prefix specifying the device, without anything following it.
In the s disk and digital tape devices were too expensive for some early microcomputer users. An inexpensive basic data storage system was devised that used common audio cassette tape. The system wrote a sound to provide time synchronization, then modulated sounds that encoded a prefix, the data, a checksum and a suffix. When the system needed to read data, the user was instructed to press "PLAY" on the cassette recorder. The system would listen to the sounds on the tape waiting until a burst of sound could be recognized as the synchronization. The system would then interpret subsequent sounds as data.
When the data read was complete, the system would notify the user to press "STOP" on the cassette recorder. It was primitive, but it worked a lot of the time. Data was stored sequentially, usually in an unnamed format, although some systems such as the Commodore PET series of computers did allow the files to be named. Multiple sets of data could be written and located by fast-forwarding the tape and observing at the tape counter to find the approximate start of the next data region on the tape. The user might have to listen to the sounds to find the right spot to begin playing the next data region.
Some implementations even included audible sounds interspersed with the data. In a flat file system, there are no subdirectories ; directory entries for all files are stored in a single directory.
extFS for Mac by Paragon Software
When floppy disk media was first available this type of file system was adequate due to the relatively small amount of data space available. These user areas were no more than special attributes associated with the files; that is, it was not necessary to define specific quota for each of these areas and files could be added to groups for as long as there was still free storage space on the disk.
It was unusual in that the file management program Macintosh Finder created the illusion of a partially hierarchical filing system on top of EMFS. This structure required every file to have a unique name, even if it appeared to be in a separate folder. While simple, flat file systems become awkward as the number of files grows and makes it difficult to organize data into related groups of files.
A recent addition to the flat file system family is Amazon 's S3 , a remote storage service, which is intentionally simplistic to allow users the ability to customize how their data is stored. The only constructs are buckets imagine a disk drive of unlimited size and objects similar, but not identical to the standard concept of a file. Many operating systems include support for more than one file system. Sometimes the OS and the file system are so tightly interwoven that it is difficult to separate out file system functions.
There needs to be an interface provided by the operating system software between the user and the file system. This interface can be textual such as provided by a command line interface , such as the Unix shell , or OpenVMS DCL or graphical such as provided by a graphical user interface , such as file browsers.
If graphical, the metaphor of the folder , containing documents, other files, and nested folders is often used see also: directory and folder. Unix-like operating systems create a virtual file system, which makes all the files on all the devices appear to exist in a single hierarchy. This means, in those systems, there is one root directory , and every file existing on the system is located under it somewhere. Unix-like systems can use a RAM disk or network shared resource as its root directory. Unix-like systems assign a device name to each device, but this is not how the files on that device are accessed.
Instead, to gain access to files on another device, the operating system must first be informed where in the directory tree those files should appear. This process is called mounting a file system. It may be empty, or it may contain subdirectories for mounting individual devices. Generally, only the administrator i.
Unix-like operating systems often include software and tools that assist in the mounting process and provide it new functionality. Some of these strategies have been coined "auto-mounting" as a reflection of their purpose. SquashFS is a common compressed read-only file system. Solaris in earlier releases defaulted to non-journaled or non-logging UFS for bootable and supplementary file systems. Solaris defaulted to, supported, and extended UFS. Support for other file systems and significant enhancements were added over time, including Veritas Software Corp.
Multiple operating systems including Solaris may use Veritas Volume Manager. Modern Solaris based operating systems eclipse the need for volume management through leveraging virtual storage pools in ZFS. Later versions of HFS Plus added journaling to prevent corruption of the file system structure and introduced a number of optimizations to the allocation algorithms in an attempt to defragment files automatically without requiring an external defragmenter.
Filenames can be up to characters. HFS Plus uses Unicode to store filenames. On macOS, the filetype can come from the type code , stored in file's metadata, or the filename extension. Aliases are designed to maintain a link to their original file even if they are moved or renamed; they are not interpreted by the file system itself, but by the File Manager code in userland. Newer versions of macOS are capable of reading and writing to the legacy FAT file systems 16 and 32 common on Windows.
Mac OS X A journaled filesystem JFS was shipped in The 9P protocol removes the difference between local and remote files. Windows uses a drive letter abstraction at the user level to distinguish one disk or partition from another. Drive C: is most commonly used for the primary hard disk drive partition, on which Windows is usually installed and from which it boots.
This "tradition" has become so firmly ingrained that bugs exist in many applications which make assumptions that the drive that the operating system is installed on is C. The use of drive letters, and the tradition of using "C" as the drive letter for the primary hard disk drive partition, can be traced to MS-DOS , where the letters A and B were reserved for up to two floppy disk drives. The FAT file systems are therefore well-suited as a universal exchange format between computers and devices of most any type and age.
Various features have been added to the file system including subdirectories , codepage support, extended attributes , and long filenames. Most of these extensions are not supported by Windows. The FAT12 and FAT16 file systems had a limit on the number of entries in the root directory of the file system and had restrictions on the maximum size of FAT-formatted disks or partitions.
This is commonly referred to as the 8. Other features also supported by NTFS include hard links, multiple file streams, attribute indexing, quota tracking, sparse files, encryption, compression, and reparse points directories working as mount-points for other file systems, symlinks, junctions, remote storage links. The system was designed to easily support removable disk packs , so the information relating to all files on one disk volume in IBM terminology is stored on that disk in a flat system file called the Volume Table of Contents VTOC.
The VTOC stores all metadata for the file. Later a hierarchical directory structure was imposed with the introduction of the System Catalog , which can optionally catalog files datasets on resident and removable volumes. The catalog only contains information to relate a dataset to a specific volume. If the user requests access to a dataset on an offline volume, and he has suitable privileges, the system will attempt to mount the required volume.
Cataloged and non-cataloged datasets can still be accessed using information in the VTOC, bypassing the catalog, if the required volume id is provided to the OPEN request. Still later the VTOC was indexed to speed up access. File data and control information are scattered and intermixed. Originally CMS used fixed-length byte blocks, but later versions used larger size blocks up to 4K.
Access to a data record requires two levels of indirection , where the file's directory entry called a File Status Table FST entry points to blocks containing a list of addresses of the individual records. It may be advantageous or necessary to have files in a different file system than they currently exist. Reasons include the need for an increase in the space requirements beyond the limits of the current file system. The depth of path may need to be increased beyond the restrictions of the file system. There may be performance or reliability considerations. Providing access to another operating system which does not support the existing file system is another reason.